REVIEW SUMMARIES FOR KLING LECTURES:
The Ecosystem and how it relates to Sustainability
Take home message:
Everything is connected to everything else.
(The trick is to discover the strength of the connections.)
Main Terms and
Ecosystem; Abiotic and biotic components
Biogeochemistry and biogeochemical cycling
Ecology - at levels of individual, population, community, ecosystem
Producers and consumers (herbivores, carnivores, detritivores)
Primary production, trophic levels, and functional groups
Redfield ratio - C:N:P:Fe (element ratios, stoichiometry)
Scientific Concepts of (a) Standing stock, (b) Mass balance, (c) Material flux rate, (d) Residence time, and (e) Positive and negative feedbacks
· Open versus closed systems.
· Ecosystem processes: energy transformations and biogeochemical cycles.
· Element cycling, including residence time.
· Food chains versus food webs.
· Explain the principles of element ratios, mass balance, and residence time, and give examples of how these tools can be used to study environmental problems (use calculations).
· Discuss the two main theories about how ecosystems are controlled -- bottom-up and top-down.
· Distribution of the world’s biomes – what determines their geography?